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Idea of launching the satellite & Factors affecting orbital velocity of a satellite

From Online Sciences - March 13, 2017

Importance of satellites

The satellite is considered as a very high tower that can be used in transmitting and receiving the wireless waves , Satellites can be classified according to their applications into Astronomical satellites which are huge telescope floating in the space and they can photograph the space accurately .

Communication satellites , They are used in TV transmission , Radio transmission , phone calls , Internet , Locating sites through GPS , Monitor regions using Google Earth .

Remote sensing satellites , They are used to study and monitor the emigrant birds , They are used to determine the mineral resources and their distribution underground , They are used to look out the agricultural yields to protect them against weather dangers and they are used to study the formation of hurricanes .

Explanatory and spying satellites : They abound the information needed by military and political leaders to make decisions and war administration .

Man has dreamt for centuries to explore the space , He continued developing probes and rockets that launch space ships to orbit the Earth or reach further to another planet like Mars .

That dream has come true on the 4th of October 1957 when the first satellite ( Sputnik ) has sent into space , That was followed by sending other satellites and stepping onto the Moon , Still space exploration continues successfully .

Idea of launching the satellite

A satellite in its orbit is considered as an object falls freely towards the Earths surface ( because it is under the effect of Earths gravity ) , In spite of this it never reaches the surface , Isaac Newton explained this as follows :

When projecting a cannon projectile from the top of a mountain in a horizontal direction ( neglecting the air resistance ) , the projectile moves through a certain distance before falling to ground , By increasing the velocity of projection , the horizontal distance moved by the projectile before falling to ground increases .

At a certain projecting velocity , the projectile falls freely along a curved path at a constant distance away from the Earths surface , The projectile orbits the Earth in a roughly circular path , It becomes a follower of the Earth and named a satellite .

A satellite is an object projected at a certain velocity to rotate in a roughly circular path at a constant distance from the Earths surface .

The orbital velocity of a satellite is the velocity that makes the satellite orbit Earth in the roughly circular path at the constant distance from the Earths surface .

Finding the orbital velocity of a satellite ( v )

The attractive gravitational force between the satellite and the Earth is the centripetal force itself .

Factors affecting the orbital velocity of a satellite

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